Translation: Here begins the definition of the group of ten divisional charts, as well as the defining of their owners.
Commentary: Varga’s or divisional chart system is what the author is about to define. This knowledge is of immense importance in understanding the effects of one’s chart, as it is said by the great Kalyana Verma (Varma, 1996).
Divisional charts are divisions (or vargas) of the twelve signs of the zodiac. Each rashi is divided into parts or amshas wherein the positions of the planets are mapped in each amsha accordingly. These newly found planetary positions make new charts or diagrams showing with great detail different aspects of the native’s life such as wealth, children, spouse, spirituality, etc.
Word daśavargīni in this shloka is pointing out that the dasa varga or ten-varga system is hereby described and given the most importance by the author. Maharishi Parashara reveals the whole of sixteen divisional charts, also called Parashara’s shodasa varga, and following shlokas are dealing with some of these divisions. Parashara has further defined the various groupings of the divisional charts such as shadvarga (6-divisions), saptavarga (7-divisions), dashavarga (10-varga) and shodashavarga (16-divisions). These various groups are used for various purposes, i.e. the group of six or shadvarga are applied in Prashna or horary charts, the seven or saptavarga are applied in case of animals and muhurta, the dashavarga are the minimum for all analysis of human beings charts, as the final sixteen or shodashavarga is confined to the analysis of the charts of rulers or Rajjyotish (Harihara, 1980).
That the author has solely introduced the dashavarga or ten varga scheme suggests the following:
- That this work solely seeks to discuss the events and charts of beings and not the objects that they create or people they rule over.
- That the author was not aware of or introduced to the Rajjyotish principles nor the works of Parashara and Jaimini. Or simply did not wish to teach these core secrets to the public, and that this work was meant for the public’s perusal.
लग्नं होरा दृकाणं स्वरनवदशकद्वादशांशा कलांशाः
त्रिंशत्षष्ट्यंशकाख्या व्ययदुरितचयश्रिकरा मानवानाम्।
होरा राश्यर्धमोजे इनकरशशिनोरिन्दुमार्तण्ढोरे (2)
युग्मे राशौ दृगाणा निजतनयतपःस्थानपानां भवन्ति॥ ३०॥ (3)
lagnaṁ horā dṛkāṇaṁ svaranavadaśakadvādaśāṁśā kalāṁśāḥ
triṁśatṣaṣṭyaṁśakākhyā vyayaduritacayaśrikarā mānavānām |
horā rāśyardhamoje inakaraśaśinorindumārtaṇḍhore (2)
yugme rāśau dṛgāṇā nijatanayatapaḥsthānapānāṁ bhavanti || 30|| (3)
Translation: Lagna or the whole, Hora or half, Drekkana or 1/3rd, Svaramsa or 1/7th, Navamsa or 1/9th, Dasamsa 1/10th, Dwadasamsa or 1/12th, Kalamsa or 1/16th, Trimsamsa or 1/30th and Shastyamsa or 1/60th of a sign, produce los, danger, long life and prosperity to men.
Hora means half of a Rashi; in an odd sign, the halves belongs respectively to the Sun and the Moon, and in an even sign to the Moon and the Sun. The Drekkana or the third portions of a sign are owned by the lords of the sign itself, of the son’s or 5th house, and of the 9th house of Dharma.
Commentary: In this shloka only ten vargas are mentioned. There are different varga groupings which are said to be employed for different purposes, and some of them are:
- Shadvarga varga or “six divisions” consist of Rasi, Hora, Drekkana, Navamsa, Dwadasamsa and Trimsamsa;
- Sapta varga or “seven divisions” consists of Rasi, Hora, Drekkana, Sapthamsa, Navamsa, Dwadasamsa and Trimsamsa;
- Dasa varga or “ten divisions” are those given by Vaidyanatha Dikshita and is consist of: Rasi, Hora, Drekkana, Sapthamsa, Navamsa, Dwadasamsa, Kalamsa, Trimsamsa and Shastyamsha;
- Shodasa varga or “sixteen divisions” is varga grouping given by Maharishi Parashara in Brihat Parashara Hora Shastra, and includes all sixteen divisional charts in vogue. These are tabulated hereunder.
Table 1: Parshara’s shodasa varga system is given bellow:
|Varga names given in BPHS||D – chart||Area of life|
|Rashi||D – 1||Physical body, all life events|
|Hora||D – 2||Wealth|
|Drekkana||D – 3||Co-born|
|Chaturtamsa||D – 4||Fortune, properties|
|Saptamsa||D – 7||Children|
|Navamsa||D – 9||Self and spouse|
|Dasamsa||D - 10||Power, career, profession|
|Dwadasamsa||D – 12||Parents, elders|
|Kalamsa||D – 16||Vehicles, all luxuries, happiness|
|Vimsamsa||D – 20||Worship and spiritualism|
|Siddhamsa||D – 24||Education and all learning|
|Bhamsa||D – 27||Strengths and weaknesses|
|Trimsamsa||D – 30||All evils|
|Khavedamsa||D – 40||Matrilineal karma|
|Akshavedamsa||D – 45||Patrilineal karma|
|Shastyamsa||D – 60||Own past karma|
Divisional chart are named and referred to with different names, either by their number or their purpose. I.e. Siddhamsa is a name for the twenty-fourth division, and refers to a siddhi or an accomplishment, perfection, wisdom and higher learning which is also examined in this division; others are named by the number of division. For example, alternative name for siddhamsa is chaturvimsamsa which literally translates to 24th division of a sign. In modern nomenclature astrologers simply use D-X where D stands for division and X is the number for the specific divisional chart. In the previous example this chart is simply referred to as D-24 chart.
In this shloka the word Lagna refers to D-1 chart or Rashi chart. Word lagna has multiple meanings. It can be translated as the whole (referring to the whole rashi of 30°), or the first astrological house by its connotation of the one who is connected to the rising of the Sun; but it can also mean rashi, or the scheme of the twelve zodiacal signs. D-1 or Rashi chart covers various aspects of physical realities of a person such as physical body itself and general overview of one’s life events.
Word hora means half coming from the word “ahoratra” meaning ‘day and night’. Whole creation is produced based on the relationship between the divine father and mother, or the Sun and the Moon, ruling day and night respectively.
The hora chart is constructed by splitting the zodiac on to two halves or that one belonging to the Sun and the other belonging to the Moon. First half of odd signs (0°-15°) are assigned to the lordship of father, Sun; and the second half (16°-30°) to the lordship of mother or Moon. For even signs it is first half that belongs to Moon and second half that belongs to Sun.
Reason for such a division lies in the nature of the creation itself. Odd signs are those which have the potential to create as they are carriers of the masculine energy; they have a power to start and initiate and are representative of the male energy hence assigned to the Sun or father. Whilst even signs are those who sustain and are female in nature, hence are assigned to Moon or the mother.
Table 2: Lords of Horas
|Rasi||From 0°-15°||From 15°-30°|
For example, Jupiter placed at 16° of Libra which is odd sign where first Hora is that of Sun and second is that of Moon; hence Jupiter is belonging to Moons hora.
Hora chart or D-2 deals with wealth and sustenance, mapping the 2nd house indications.
There exists various variations of Hora chart. Jagannatha Hora, Kashinatha Hora and Parivrtti-Dvaya Hora are to name a few in popular vogue in the tradition. The one given by the author is termed Parashara Hora as Parashara is among the first to have delivered its calculation.
Drekkana is one third division of a sign wherein each division is of 10 degrees. The 1st drekkana is owned by the sign itself (0°-10°); 2nd by the fifth sign from it (10°-20°) and 3rd is owned by the sign 9th from it (20°-30°). Whole zodiac is therefore consisted of 36 drekkanas.
This system of calculating drekkana chart is also known as Parashara drekkana. There are other ways to calculate the D-3 chart and are known by other names like Somanatha drekkana, Jagannatha drekkana, etc.
Table 3: Calculation of drekkanas
For example, Jupiter placed at 16° of Libra is in second drekkana. Second drekkana of the Libra is Aquarius pr fifth sign there from. Hence in Parshara drekkana planet Jupiter is placed in sign Aquarius.
Parashara drekkana chart is to be seen for judging all the details about co-born and siblings.
D-7 or Saptamsa
Saptamsa chart is next division mentioned in this shloka. Interestingly, the author is using the word svara (स्वर) pointing out the essence of this varga. The word svara has multiple meanings:
(1) One of them is sound. The alphabet consists of vowels or svaras which are said to be the one holding the soul in them. Short ones are said to be the Purusha and long ones are said to be Shakti. Consonants on the other hand are those sounds which are representing the body or physical manifestation of the creation. Hence the author is here giving the first application of this varga and that is creation;
(2) Other translations are indicating the rhythm or musical scales of which seven are enumerated hence hinting to chandas or the rhythm or metre in which sounds are unfolding;
(3) Third implication is that of rasas or tastes. It is sad that seven divisions of saptamsa are the seven rasas or tastes in which all progeny is created by Sarasvati and Brahma.
Saptamsa is formed after division of the sign into seven parts. Each part is therefore of 4º17’09” in span. For odd signs the calculation starts from the sign itself, whilst for even signs, the calculation starts from the seventh from the sign.
For example, previously mentioned Jupiter being placed in 16° of Libra is falling in Capricorn Saptamsa. Libra is an odd sign whilst Jupiter is placed in a 4th samptamsa of the same which is Capricorn saptamsa.
Saptamsa is used to predict everything related to progeny.
Navamsha chart is the most important chart after the Rashi chart. Navamsha chart is the ninth division of the sign, dividing each sign into nine parts. Each part or amsha is consisted of 3°20´. Navamsha calculation always starts from the movable sign in trines to the sign in question.
For example, Jupiter in 16° of Libra is placed in the 5th navamsha of Libra. Libra being a movable sign itself means that the counting starts from same sign and 5th navamsha is therefore that of Aquarius.
Navamsha chart is also called dharmamsa and it deals ones dharma and marriage but also many spiritual concepts.
Dashamsa is also called Swargamsa and is created after division of every sign into ten portions, that way each measuring 3°. Construction of the dasamsa chart is made that way that counting starts from the same sign for odd signs and from the 9th for the even signs.
With an example of Jupiter being placed at 16° of Libra we will come to conclusion that the same Jupiter is falling in the sign Pisces in Dashamsa chart. Libra being an odd sign made the counting start form Libra itself and Jupiter passed six amsas ending in Pisces sign.
This chart deals with career, work and profession.
Dwadasamsa which is also known as Suryamsa, is one twelfth division of the sign. Each amsa is therefore 2°30´ in span. Counting always starts from that sign and proceeds regularly regardless of the type of the sign.
For example, Jupiter in the given example is going to be in Pisces sign in dwasamsa chart.
This chart deals with parents and parental lineage.
Kalamsa, also known as Shodasamsa is one sixteenth division of a sign. Each amsa is therefore measuring 1°52´30”. Counting is always from Aries for movable, Leo for fixed and Sagittarius for dual signs and is always forward.
Jupiter in given example is placed in a movable sign which means that the counting will start from the Aries. Being placed on 16° in Libra, sign occupying in Kalamsa will be that of
Trimsamsa is thirty-fold division of a sign. Its calculation is slightly different than those of other vargas. Parasara trimsamsa is what is given by author and it is constructed in a following manner: trimsamsa is divided into five parts of 5,5,8,7 and 5 degrees for odd, and reverse for even signs. The signs for these five parts are: Aries, Aquarius, Sagittarius, Gemini and Libra for odd signs. For even signs this is Taurus, Virgo, Pisces, Capricorn and Scorpio respectively.
This cart reveals all the evils of a native.
Shastyamsa is sixtieth division dividing each sign into 0°30´ span. Counting in this varga starts from the sign itself and traverses all signs five times that way covering all divisions.
This chart deals with the past life karma which has a direct saying in this life and is given highest importance by Maharish Parashara.
Lords of Saptāṁśa
लग्नादिसप्तमांशेशास्त्वोजे राशौ यथाक्रमम्।
युग्मे लग्ने स्वरांशानामधिपाः सप्तमादयः॥ ३१॥ (4)
lagnādisaptamāṁśeśāstvoje rāśau yathākramam |
yugme lagne svarāṁśānāmadhipāḥ saptamādayaḥ || 31|| (4)
Translation: The owners of the Saptamamsas or the seven portions of Lagna and other houses are in the case of an odd sign to be counted regularly from that sign itself, while in case of an even sign, there are to be reckoned from the sign of the 7th house onwards.
Commentary: This shloka reveals the rules in which lords of saptamsas are to be found for both, odd and even signs. In this divisional chart, counting is to be commenced from the sign itself in regular order in case of an odd sign; whilst in the case of an even signs counting begins from the 7th sign from that sign.
For example, for the sign Aries (Aries being an odd sign) Aries is the 1st saptamsa, 2nd is Taurus, 3rd is Gemini, etc. For the sign Taurus (being the even sign), 1st saptamsa is that of Scorpio, 2nd that of Sagittarius, 3rd that of Capricorn, etc.
Table 4. Saptamsa divisions
Chart example 1:
|Lagna||20°00´ Gemini||5th amsa/Libra|
|Sun||28°33´ Scorpio||7th amsa/Scorpio|
|Moon||13°07´ Aries||4th amsa/Cancer|
|Mars||29°47´ Taurus||7th amsa/Taurus|
|Mercury||7°19´ Sagittarius||2nd amsa/Capricorn|
|Jupiter||21°15´ Pisces||5th amsa/Capricorn|
|Venus||15°23´ Libra||4th amsa/Capricorn|
|Saturn||8°38´ Cancer||3rd amsa/Pisces|
|Rahu||26°40´ Libra||7th amsa/Aries|
|Ketu||26°40´ Aries||7th amsa/Libra|
Saptamsa is the most important divisional chart in studying children and progeny. This division of the sign into seven parts is strongly linked to the spiritual concept known as Sa-Rasa-Wati or the divine mother Saraswati. Saraswati together with her spouse Brahma are responsible for creating the entire material world which is presented in twelve signs. This creation is sad to be occurring with each union of seven Rasa’s with Brahma, hence this is happening once for all odd signs and then again for all even signs.
This calculation is therefore taking in account the union of the father and the mother corresponding to the 7th house matters, which is necessary in order to produce progeny in first place; hence this division is created on the bases of the seven-fold division and not some other. Children are the fruit of the marriage and this union and therefore they are to be seen from the 5th house or 11th from the 7th house (gain of the marriage). This gati is called Manduka gati and is used to determine each pregnancy and child in ones horoscope.
वृषक्नयामृगाणां च मृगाद्या नव कीर्तिताः॥ ३२॥
cāpājasiṁharāśīnāṁ navāṁśāstumburādayaḥ |
vṛṣaknayāmṛgāṇāṁ ca mṛgādyā nava kīrtitāḥ || 32||
Translation: The Navamsas of Sagittarius, Aries and Leo respectively belong to the nine signs from Aries onwards; those of Taurus, Virgo and Capricorn belong to Capricorn and nine signs following it.
Commentary: This shloka is describing the calculation of the Navamsa chart. Navamsa chart is ninth (nava) division of a sign each being 3°20´ in span and this amsas are to be counted always starting from a movable sign in trines to the concerned sign.
Shloka 32. is giving an explanation of the same in case of fiery signs or Sagittarius, Aries and Leo wherein the movable sign of the three is Aries, hence counting of the amsas are to be reconed from that sign onwards.
Same rule is applied in case of earthy trine or Taurus, Virgo and Capricorn of which Capricorn is movable sign hence counting of the amsas is to be reckoned from Capricorn onwards.
नृयुक्तुलाघटानां च तुलाद्याश्चांशका नव।
कर्किवृश्चिकमीनानां कर्कटाद्या नवांशकाः॥ ३३॥
nṛyuktulāghaṭānāṁ ca tulādyāścāṁśakā nava |
karkivṛścikamīnānāṁ karkaṭādyā navāṁśakāḥ || 33||
Translation: The nine signs starting from Libra are owners of the Navamsas of Gemini, Libra and Aquarius. The Navamsas of Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces respectively are nine signs starting from Cancer onwards.
Commentary: Shloka 33. is continuation of the previous shloka dealing with the rules of calculation of Navamsa chart. This shloka is particularly covering airy and watery signs. This way there are 108 navamsas which coincides with 12 rashis X 9 amsas.
Table 5: Navamsas
Chart example 2:
|Lagna||20°00´ Gemini||7th amsa/Aries|
|Sun||28°33´ Scorpio||9th amsa/Pisces|
|Moon||13°07´ Aries||4th amsa/Cancer|
|Mars||29°47´ Taurus||9th amsa/Virgo|
|Mercury||7°19´ Sagittarius||3rd amsa/Gemini|
|Jupiter||21°15´ Pisces||7th amsa/Capricorn|
|Venus||15°23´ Libra||5th amsa/Aquarius|
|Saturn||8°38´ Cancer||3rd amsa/Virgo|
|Rahu||26°40´ Libra||8th amsa/Taurus|
|Ketu||26°40´ Aries||8th amsa/Scorpio|
Navamsha chart deals with ones dharma as is imposed in the calculation of this divisional chart. Not only that this varga chart is corresponds to the 9th house of dharma, but also each navamasa is to be counted on a sadharmi or on the basis of trines. This varga is one of the most complex ones as in its calculation there are strong links of the nakshatra pada (there are also 108 nakshatra padas) with rashis; elements of rashis (four natural elements also called tatwas) and it emphasizes the trines as planets in trines are starting from the same navamsa.
As movable sign is always one of the four signs in Kendra houses, this chart is also consulted to find out one of the four main life directions or ayanas also known as: dharma, artha, kama and moksha.
Together with a complexity of principles employed in calculation of this divisional chart, so is its usage in understanding complexity of one’s horoscope and with that also ones karma. Its most popular usage is in matters of marriage, spirituality and spiritual path but also in general overview of strength of one’s chart. Common comparison between Rashi and Navamsha chart is that of a promising tree (Rashi chart) and its fruits (Navamsha chart) or lack of the same. It is next to impossible to judge horoscope without good understanding of one’s Navamsha chart.